Researchers have discovered that a certain protein in tooth enamel comes from a sex-specific gene. Scientists at the University of California/Davis have taken that discovery and developed a technique by which they can determine the gender of human remains even if only a single tooth is all that is recovered. Details are in this recent article in Archaeology magazine.
This technology is potentially a great help to archaeologists, including those who study our area of the US Southwest, because the recovery of a single tooth that is not associated with any other human remains may now yield more valuable and relevant information about a given archaeological site than ever before.
Science is so cool.